DISEÑO Y PROTOTIPADO DE UN ROBOT MÓVIL AUTÓNOMO Y TELE-OPERADO (DESIGN AND PROTOTYPING OF AN AUTONOMOUS AND TELE-OPERATED MOBILE ROBOT)

Ramiro Velázquez Guerrero, María Teresa Orvañanos Guerrero, Ricardo Macías Quijas

Resumen


Resumen
En este artículo se presenta el diseño, modelado y prototipado de un robot móvil con aplicaciones potenciales en exploración de zonas accidentadas o de difícil acceso, reconocimiento, seguridad, defensa, rescate, entre otras. El sistema mecánico está basado en la configuración diferencial de robots móviles. El prototipo utiliza dos motores eléctricos de alta potencia que le permiten sortear obstáculos y navegar en terrenos difíciles con buena precisión y a una velocidad máxima de 20 km/h. El sistema de control está basado en un sistema embebido y dos sensores principales: una cámara RGB y un arreglo de sensores ultrasónicos que habilitan la navegación autónoma. Adicionalmente el robot propuesto puede ser tele-operado utilizando un casco de realidad virtual y un dispositivo háptico kinestésico mientras que la transmisión de video y el intercambio de datos se realizan por un módulo de comunicación de radiofrecuencia (RF).
Palabras Clave: Navegación autónoma, robot móvil, sensado ultrasónico, tele-operación, vehículo diferencial, visión por computadora.

Abstract
This paper presents the design, modeling, and prototyping of a mobile robot with potential applications in the fields of exploration, reconnaissance, security, defense, rescue, among others. The mechanical system is based on the differential drive structure driven by two high-power electrical motors that allow the prototype to negotiate obstacles and navigate rough terrain with a high degree of accuracy at a maximum speed of 20 km/h. The control system is based on an embedded micro-controller architecture and two main sensors: a color camera and an array of ultrasonic sensors, which enable autonomous navigation of the robot. In addition, the robot can also be tele-operated using a virtual reality helmet and a kinesthetic haptic device while video and data exchange are provided by a RF communication link.
Keywords: Autonomous navigation, differential vehicle, machine vision, mobile robot, tele-operation, ultrasonic sensing.

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Referencias


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