PROTOTIPO PARA EL CONTROL ELECTRÓNICO DE UN MOTOR BLDC USADO EN UN VEHÍCULO ELÉCTRICO (PROTOTYPE FOR THE ELECTRONIC CONTROL OF A BLDC MOTOR USED IN AN ELECTRIC VEHICLE)

José Castillo Hernández, Alberto Caballero Ruiz, Leopoldo Ruiz Huerta

Resumen


Resumen
En este trabajo, se presenta el desarrollo de la electrónica para el control de un motor BLDC que forma parte de la etapa de tracción de un vehículo eléctrico. La información que se ofrece considera la electrónica de potencia, la instrumentación y el control con base en un microcontrolador de 8 bits. En el documento se da una breve explicación del funcionamiento general del motor y se presenta la estructura general del controlador, en donde se exponen los puntos relevantes de la electrónica de potencia y las consideraciones que se tomaron en cuenta para la elección de sus componentes. Se describe el algoritmo que ajusta el ciclo de trabajo y controla el voltaje promedio que se aplica al motor para evitar condiciones adversas de sobretensión y sobre corriente. Se incluyen los resultados experimentales obtenidos en el laboratorio, así como el desempeño obtenido durante la competencia Sell Eco-Marathon Americas 2019.
Palabras Clave: Control electrónico, electrónica de potencia, microcontrolador, motor Brushless, sensor de efecto Hall.

Abstract
In this work, the control electronics development of an BLDC motor that is part of the traction stage of an electric vehicle is presented. The information offered considers power electronics, instrumentation and the control based on an 8-bit microcontroller. The document gives a brief explanation of the general operation of the electric motor and the general structure of the controller is presented, where the relevant points of the power electronics and the considerations that were considered for the choice of its components are exposed. The algorithm that adjusts the duty cycle and controls the average voltage applied to the motor is described to avoid adverse overvoltage and overcurrent conditions. The experimental results obtained in the laboratory are reported, as well as their performance in the Sell Eco-Marathon Americas 2019 competition.
Keywords: Brushless motor, electronic control, Hall effect sensor, microcontroller, power electronics.

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Referencias


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